Volume 1, Issue 4 (2022)                   jpt 2022, 1(4): 355-370 | Back to browse issues page

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Theology and Religious Studies Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran , m_salem@sbu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (299 Views)
Following the occurrence of unfortunate phenomena such as epidemics, floods, earthquakes, wars and the like and the sacrifice of many people in a short period of time and the inability of humans to control those phenomena, the God-believer's mind challenges to divine attributes, especially pure goodness, as well as his care for the universe, have been known throughout the history of science as the challenge of evil. Resolving this challenge from public opinion has always been the concern of God-fearing thinkers, and has led them to somehow establish the right connection between the pure good God and the material world full of evil, and to show the evil caused by imperfections. It exists in the material world and has nothing to do with God. This article tries to explain the philosophical answer of Avicenna and the mysticism one of Mulla Sadra and mystics, and to emphasize that since evil is presented in terms of multiplicity and nature, it is a mental matter and has no external existence. Just as multiplicity and nature exist outside as a result of existence and unity, so evil exists outside as a result of existence. It is also shown that Mulla Sadra's mystical answer is complementary to Ibn Sina's philosophical answer and is consistent with the principles of his transcendent theosophy. Ibn Sina's philosophical answer is useful in argumental philosophy and Mulla Sadra’s mystical answer is useful in contemplational theosophy. So each of these answers can be useful at different levels of thinking.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Metaphysics (Islamic)
Received: 2021/12/10 | Accepted: 2021/12/27 | Published: 2022/01/4
* Corresponding Author Address: Shahid Beheshti University. Shahid Shahriari Square, Daneshjou Boulevard, Shahid Chamran Highway, Tehran, Iran Postal code: 1983969411

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